What is “anabolic”?
The term “anabolic” describes any substance capable of supporting the growth of muscle tissue or the accumulation of nitrogen muscle builder steroids in the muscle protein.
In a normal state, the body constantly destroys and removes old cells and tissues and replaces them with new ones. The process of destruction and removal is called “catabolism” in medicine. Anabolism is the process of building new cells and tissues to replace old ones. In a normally functioning organism these two groups of processes are maintained in equilibrium.
Muscular and bone tissues are thus constantly updated, and neither growth nor decrease in mass occurs.
Strengthened physical exercises are anabolic, as they increase muscle mass. A protein-rich diet is also considered anabolic, although this is not confirmed.
Anabolic steroids cause under certain conditions an increase in muscle mass. Testosterone is a natural anabolic steroid. A higher level of testosterone in the male body compared with the female provides a higher percentage of muscle mass in men.
For a time, it was believed that anabolic and androgenic steroids are different things, and so you can develop new types of steroids that will simply increase muscle mass without side-effects masculine. However, it was found that the anabolic and androgenic effects are caused by the same drugs, but in different tissues. Thus, any steroids that increase muscle mass cause side masculine effects.
Where does anabolic steroids come from?
The body produces testosterone in a natural way, but natural testosterone is not used in medicine. In a normally functioning body, testosterone is constantly released into the blood by the pituitary gland. In the male body, in addition, testosterone is produced by the testicles. Testosterone reaches different parts of the body, works, and then is destroyed by enzymes.
When the male body reaches the end of puberty, the amount of testosterone rises sharply and keeps at a high level from four to six months, after which it returns to normal level. In this period, the growth zones of the limbs are closed, the voice goes down, the hair on the face begins to grow and the sexual organs increase. It is this wave of testosterone that ends the sexual maturation of the male body.
In some men, this rise in testosterone does not occur. When the role of testosterone was clarified, the researchers tried to treat delay in maturation by prescribing testosterone for use. It turned out that a single dose of testosterone, even a very large one, is destroyed so quickly by enzymes that it has no effect. To use for this purpose, natural testosterone, a person muscle builder steroids should be placed under a dropper with testosterone for four months! By trial and error, a method was found to change the testosterone molecule in order to prolong its life in the body.
There are a large number of varieties of anabolic steroids suitable for the treatment of various diseases. Earlier anabolic steroids were isolated from various tissues of animals, now they are synthesized ..
Why is anabolic steroids abused?
Anabolic steroids allow athletes to more quickly gain the muscle mass when practicing different kinds of sports. Many athletes believe that their achievements are due solely to the use of steroids.
It has not been proven that steroids in themselves increase muscle mass in athletes during training. Additions may well be caused by a purely psychological effect. In sixteen experiments with steroids, nine showed their effectiveness as a means of increasing the mass, the remaining seven did not yield any result. At the same time, the anabolic steroids are widely used as a means to build muscle after some surgeries and cancer treatment in which the patient experiences a loss of muscle mass. This topic is discussed in detail in the section “Steroids and body tissue growth”.
At first only in some sports athletes abused steroids to improve the quality of training. But over time, the abuse of steroids has spread to other sports. Now only two Olympic disciplines are considered “clean”: women’s field hockey and figure skating.
The abuse of steroids is now not limited to the sports world
Recently, the number of young people using steroids is growing, not doing sports at the same time. During the polls this group of people says that they use steroids “for health”. Steroids help to gain muscle mass with increased training, but there is no evidence that large doses of steroids, used without exercise, help build muscle. People who are overweight who do not go in for sports are at risk of high blood pressure and other heart problems. However, there is no evidence that enhanced exercise, with or without steroids, prolongs life or reduces the risk of diseases.
There are confirmations that excess amounts of steroids can prematurely stop body growth, cause heart attacks, various liver diseases, atrophy of male genital organs and muscle builder steroids many other effects. This topic is discussed in detail in the section “The effect of steroids on the body.”
What are the different types of anabolic steroids and how do they differ?
Testosterone, like many other hormones, is produced by strictly defined organs of the body. It performs strictly defined functions and is quickly eliminated from the body. When they learned that testosterone helps to gain muscle mass and determines the development of secondary male sexual characteristics, physicians tried to use testosterone during the treatment of diseases that cause loss of muscle mass.
Unfortunately, testosterone in its natural form has a half-life in the body of only about ten minutes. This means that half the dose of testosterone is removed from the body ten minutes after it was injected there. After that, half of the remaining amount is output every ten minutes. Within an hour of the initial amount, nothing remains. Injection of natural testosterone into the muscle can stretch the time of complete decay to ten hours, but this is not enough to produce any effect.
Chemists worked on natural testosterone to create a drug that works like testosterone, but lives in the body long enough to produce some kind of effect. As a result, testosterone derivatives such as 17-alpha-alkylate, 17-beta- ester and 1-methyl were obtained. All the anabolic steroids currently in use are variations of one of these three derivatives of the testosterone molecule. All of them enter the body in various ways and give different side effects. 17-alpha-alkylates and 1-methyls are taken orally, and 17-beta-esters are administered as injections. For convenience, they are classified as oral and injectable.
Athletes usually continue to use oral drugs even if they start using injectable steroids. Some use oral drugs to slip through the doping check: most oral drugs do not live in the body for longer than injections. When the competitions approach, the athlete starts using short-lived drugs, then, four to six weeks before the start, stops using completely, so that the urine is clean during the check.
Many athletes and trainers are convinced that it is necessary to use both oral and injectable drugs at the same time according to a certain scheme. This topic is detailed in the section “How are anabolics used by athletes?”
Injection of the drug bypasses the body’s natural defenses. If someone accidentally swallowed more than necessary, he can at least induce vomiting before enough amount is absorbed to cause death. If someone inhales poison smoke or fumes, the cough reflex will work and prevent poisoning. But if someone has injected too much, it will not be very easy to get it out of the body. When injections are made in the hospital, much attention is paid to sterilizing equipment and skin before injecting. Without this preparation, the needle can carry dirt and bacteria, bypassing the skin’s protective barrier. Hepatitis and various inflammations are the usual results of poor disinfection. Registered even two cases of AIDS among bodybuilders.
Injectable anabolics are considered the starting point, the gateway to addiction to other injections: a person who is muscle builder steroids accustomed to injecting anabolic bolle is prone to experimenting with other drugs than one who has never stabbed anything. This principle of “gate” is applicable to other drugs. For example, a person who smokes tobacco is easier to try smoking marijuana or crack than a non-smoker.
USE IN MEDICINE
Are anabolic steroids used in medicine legally? Anabolic steroids are legally used in medicine. Testicular cancer, for example, often requires the removal of testicles in men. After the operation, these people are prescribed anabolic steroids orally to compensate for the lack of testosterone in the body. This supports their secondary sexual characteristics.
Male adolescents with pituitary disorders are prescribed injections of anabolic steroids when they reach maturity. Anabolic drugs are used from four to six months according to a certain pattern, this simulates a natural jump in testosterone levels and supports the development of secondary sexual characteristics. After some surgical operations or cancer treatment, patients experience loss of muscle mass. In these cases, anabolic steroids are used in combination with diet and exercise, it restores muscle tissue.
Anabolic steroids in high doses are used by transsexual women who want to look like men. But this is not an officially approved use of steroids.
Anabolic steroids are used as oral masculine contraceptives. However, a bad reputation for anabolic drugs severely limits this use.
Dosages of steroids for medical use range from 2.5 mg per day to 400 mg every four weeks. Usually only one type of anabolic is used. Athletes use 8-10 times the recommended rate of each drug and often combine several different anabolics. In typical admission schemes, the athlete takes between 20 and 2000 mg of testosterone (in equivalent) per day.
In most cases of clinical use, the doses of anabolic steroids are only a small fraction of the body’s production of steroids. Optimum doses for different cases are determined by the manufacturer in the experimental conditions. Before testing a new drug on a muscle builder steroids volunteer, prolonged animal tests are conducted to find out how strong the drug is and how to dose it.
The complete opposite is the independent use of steroids. All dosage instructions and application regimens are transmitted by hearsay, without any verification of efficacy or compliance with medical standards.
How are anabolics used by athletes?
Athletes take steroids in large quantities and often combine several different drugs. But large doses are not taken continuously. Steroid loading lasts from 4 to 18 weeks, then stops for a period of 1 to 12 months. This is called a “cycle”. Combinations of drugs and patterns of cycles of use vary greatly depending on the drugs and the characteristics of the user. All information is transmitted mainly from the athlete to the athlete. Doses, in which young athletes now use steroids, are at least 36% more than the doses of athletes of the past. Formal scientific research here no one conducts and no one now really knows how and in what quantities it is better to use steroids.
Anabolic steroids are mostly purchased with hands. This gives a wide course to numerous counterfeits. Often in the course are veterinary steroids. Since these drugs were developed for animals, no one investigated their effects on humans, possible doses and side effects.
Just like all black market drugs, counterfeit anabolics are manufactured in clandestine laboratories. They look the same as the real ones, but the active elements in them may be different or not of the same strength. For example, methandrostenolone was a very popular anabolic steroid. After official manufacturers removed it from the market, it continues to be sold illegally. Three purchased drugs with the label “methandrostenolone” were checked in the laboratory. Instead of the steroid indicated on the label, one contained methyltestosterone, the second – caffeine, in the third active ingredients were not at all. And drugs for injection, in addition, can also be non-sterile.
As with any medicine, the higher the dose, the more likely muscle builder steroids the occurrence of side effects. This is true for anabolic patients. To neutralize these effects, other drugs are used – estrogen blockers in order to prevent the development of breast tissue (see “How do anabolic drugs work for adults?”), Diuretics (diuretics) to control the accumulation of water in the body, gonadotropin to prevent atrophy of the testicles , human growth hormone to increase muscle size and overall body size. Each of these drugs causes its own side effects.
At what age do people start using anabolic steroids?
Two-thirds of the beneficiaries began at the age of 16 and under. Of the approximately one million Americans using anabolic drugs, three-quarters attend high school. Those who do not study make up the age group of about 25 years. This is by the way – the average age of athletes in American gyms.
The younger the person, the greater the risk of side effects from anabolic steroids. In female children exposed to steroids in the embryo state, external male genitalia develop, while female reproductive organs are preserved. Parallel development of the genitals and slow growth often occur in children who are exposed to steroids.
Fortunately, the use of anabolics among pregnant women and children under the age of 12 is extremely small.
How does anabolic steroids affect adolescents?
Anabolic agents can act on growth during puberty. The long bones of the legs and hands continue to grow during this period. At birth in the hands and feet are formed cartilaginous areas, called “epiphyses.” The bone grows in length from the epiphysis to a muscle builder steroids certain point at the end of puberty. The external effect on the natural production of steroids causes the closure of the epiphyses, the bone becomes firm and ceases to grow. Adult growth is fixed. The intake of anabolic during maturation in athletic doses affects this way. Closure of the epiphyses and fixation of growth occurs earlier than necessary.
There is an appearance and intensification of acne. After the abolition of anabolic treatment, the growth of the rash stops, but scars may remain in large numbers. In one recorded case, the rash was intense enough that the person eventually landed in the hospital. Drugs that are prescribed for the treatment of rashes, tetracycline and isotretinoin, even in normal doses can be toxic to consuming anabolic. When liver enzymes are occupied with neutralizing anabolic agents, they can not normally work with these drugs, and the latter accumulate in the body, causing all sorts of toxic effects.
At users of anabolism, baldness is observed, both in men and in women. Some medical authorities claim that after stopping the reception, hair growth resumes. Other sources say that this process is irreversible.
How do anabolic steroids affect adults?
In men, an excess of anabolic steroids is prebaked in female sex hormones. This leads to the development of breast tissue in men, gynecomastia. Although this effect is not observed in all cases of steroid use, it is considered irreversible.
Testosterone is produced by the testicles in amounts of 4 to 10 mg per day. When a man takes anabolic steroids, the body tracks an excess of steroids and signals the testicles to stop their production. When the production of testosterone ceases, the testicles also stop producing live sprites. Long-term use of anabolic steroids leads to sterility and a decrease in the size of muscle builder steroids the testicles. In adult men, the testicles begin to function again six months after the withdrawal of steroids. It is not known whether the anabolic steroids act differently on the function of the testicles in adolescent males.
How do anabolics work on the stomach?
In the medical literature there is no information on how anabolic steroids interact with the digestive system. However, it is known that in large doses anabolics act on the body in the same way as other substances of this class. Some clinical cases (ulcer, for example) require that the patient take large doses of corticosteroids, sometimes this can last for years. Individual cases are treated surgically and corticosteroids are not needed. In a third of these patients, cessation of corticosteroids causes a temporary disruption of the bowel function, accompanied by pain in the stomach, nausea and vomiting. Cases of the fact that stopping the intake of anabolic steroids leads to the same results, no. However, if a steroid-treated athlete experiences similar disorders, you should always consult a doctor.
How does anabolic steroids affect the skin?
Steroids cause the appearance of acne. Anabolic steroids stimulate the production of skin fats, the medical name is “sebum”. These fats are an excellent nutrient medium for a number of bacteria. If an infection develops under these conditions, a protective reaction of the organism follows. The end result is usually the numerous small scars remaining from acne. A 21-year-old athlete using steroids developed acne after 4 weeks of taking anabolic. On the background of the rash, an infection developed from several species of bacteria, which caused such a reaction of the immune system that the person was in the hospital and spent several weeks there. Drugs for acne (tetracycline and isotretinoin) can be toxic even at normal doses for a person who uses steroids. If liver enzymes are muscle builder steroids involved in the processing of anabolic drugs, they are not able to deactivate to a normal extent the drugs taken from acne. The latter because of this accumulate in the body and cause toxic effects. At users of anabolism, baldness is observed, both in men and in women. Some medical authorities claim that after stopping the reception, hair growth resumes. Other sources say that this process is irreversible.
Do anabolic steroids cause liver damage?
Yes, depending on the type of anabolic steroid, the amount and duration of administration. If the liver is overloaded or damaged, high amounts of certain chemicals are expelled into the blood (SGOT, SGPT, and others). These chemicals are an indicator by which the liver status is assessed in some medical tests. So, the level of these substances in the blood consuming anabolic athletes is twice as high as normal. After the termination of reception of anabolics allocation of these substances stops and their level in blood comes to norm. Self-healing of damaged tissue is unknown. Thus, damage can remain even if the level of SGOT and SGPT has returned to normal.
Liver to metabolize oral steroids is more difficult than injecting. Liver cells are damaged when trying to break down oral medications. The internal structure of the liver with prolonged use of drugs varies, the ability of the liver to purify the body of the slag falls. As a variant of the consequence of liver poisoning with steroids, cavities filled with blood can form in it. The medical name of this phenomenon is “peliosis hepatitis”, a phenomenon quite rare, but it may well be associated with high doses and prolonged use of steroids.
Injectable steroids do not present an immediate threat to the liver, like oral ones. However, injections can open the way for many bacteria and viruses through the protective skin barrier right into the bloodstream. Infectious hepatitis, for example, is transmitted through dirty needles. (By the way: any infectious diseases are transmitted through needles, including venereal and AIDS).
Anabolic steroids can cause the formation of tumors: some liver cells grow into nodules that resemble tumors. Often, after stopping the use of steroids, the nodules resolve themselves. However, at least three people die from various tumors caused by premome steroids.
The chemical process, called aromatization, converts anabolic steroids into female sex hormones called estrogens. The liver deactivates these estrogens, but with alcohol consumption this process slows down and estrogens cause growth of breast tissue in men. This is called gynecomastia. Some researchers believe that gynecomastia can be considered an indicator of liver damage.
Do anabolics cause kidney disorders?
The toxic effect of anabolic steroids on the kidney is not known. However, some studies show that with prolonged use of anabolic steroids, their quantity, excreted in the urine, decreases. At the same time, the withdrawal of corticosteroids is not impaired. It is not known muscle builder steroids why the release of anabolic steroids occurs. It is not known whether the feces that are not excreted in the urine are excreted.
How do steroids act on brain tissue?
Steroids do not show any effect on brain tissue, unlike, for example, alcohol. There is some evidence that anabolic steroids cause a change of mood in a wide range – from euphoria to depression, a tag to violence, a sense of guilt. This topic is discussed in the section “The Action of Steroids on the Brain”
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
How does anabolic steroids work on the immune system?
High doses of anabolic drugs cause a decrease in the blood levels of immune globulins A, G and M. These proteins, known by the medical names IgA, IgG and IgM are part of the body’s immune system. These antibodies circulate along with the blood stream and attack the bacteria. The less of them, the higher the risk of developing serious infections in a person. Injections of steroids can also be the cause of various diseases. The use of syringes without strict sanitary control and sterilization can cause the development of hepatitis, a fatal disease. Sharing syringes can cause AIDS and other diseases. Two cases of AIDS transmission through syringes in gyms have been documented.
On the other hand, anabolic steroids increase the activity of natural killer cells. This is another body fighting system with infections, special white blood cells that attack certain viruses and bacteria and help prevent the formation of tumors. Increased activity of killer cells can be useful for the body. However, excessively active killer cells can also attack their own body tissues, causing so-called “autoimmune” diseases.
How does anabolic steroids act on the heart?
In animal and human experiments, the anabolic steroids muscle builder steroids showed an increase in the size of the heart. The heart muscle changes in the same way as in chronic heart defects. Therefore, among young athletes, chemists, so-called sudden deaths often occur. In one recorded case, the young man lost consciousness immediately after training and died. An autopsy showed that the heart muscle is greatly enlarged in size and has a large number of areas of dead tissue. According to the authorities from medicine, the use of anabolic drugs led to the fact that the tissues of the heart muscle grew faster than the necessary blood vessels. Because of steroids and cancer this, part of the heart tissue was not provided with blood badly, the new cells died, this caused a heart attack.
How do anabolic steroids act on blood vessels?
Abuse of steroids causes hardening of the arteries already in youth: high doses of anabolic drugs lower the level of elastin in the blood and increase collagen in the walls of blood vessels. Arteries harden from this.
For reasons not yet studied, Oragnism reacts to its own testosterone differently than to the one that comes from outside. For example, body testosterone lowers cholesterol in the blood, while anabolic steroids increase cholesterol. Accepted anabolic steroids lower the level of HDL (high-density lipoprotein – high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) and increase the level of LDL (low density lipoprotein – low-density lipoprotein (LDL)) and triglycerides in the blood. All this increases the amount of cholesterol in the blood. When the reception of steroids stops, the situation gradually returns to normal. However, with long-term use of steroids, the walls of the vessels still harden and the risk of a heart attack increases.
How do anabolic steroids act on blood vessels?
Anabolic steroids can cause an increase in the number of sclerotic plaques in the blood. During the day, the body tolerates stress and various minor injuries. And athletic training causes even more damage. Such stress causes a lot of small leaks in the circulatory system. Usually there are no visible traces of this, although a significant leak may look like a bruise. Plaques are muscle builder steroids supposed to eliminate such leaks, so that the circulatory system continues to function normally. Abuse of steroids is associated with damage to connective tissues. Steroids, in addition, allow more easily plaques stick together. This phenomenon is called “hyperaggregation” and can lead to blood clots, heart attacks and even death.
How do anabolic steroids affect male sexual characteristics?
High doses of anabolic steroids can cause temporary infertility, testicular atrophy and the development of female gender characteristics in men. One case of prostate cancer associated with the use of steroids is reported. The likelihood of such phenomena is related to the amount in which and how long steroids have been used.
In a normal male body, the testicles secrete testosterone and produce sperm. The pituitary gland monitors the amount of testosterone in the human blood. If the level is too low, the pituitary gland secrete FSH (“Follicle Stimulating Hormone”) and LH (“Luteinizing Hormone”) hormones to cause the testes to produce more testosterone. If there is too much testosterone, the pituitary gland lowers the FSH and LH levels and testosterone also goes down. Thus, the body controls the amount of testosterone needed to produce sprats and maintain male sexual characteristics.
When a man takes steroids, the pituitary gland notes an unexpected increase in the level of steroids and gives a chemical signal to stop testicular production of testicles. The longer a person takes steroids, the longer the testicles stay idle. Sperm cells begin to take the wrong shape and their number falls. If taking steroids takes a long time, a person can become sterile. The testicles of men who take steroids for years, decrease in size. If the adult man then stops taking steroids, the testicles return to normal. However, it may take from four months to a year to begin to develop normal sperm and restore the ability to fertilize.
In two reported cases, it is possible that prolonged use of anabolic steroids caused permanent sterility and loss of libido. However, more research is needed to determine whether steroids caused it or whether each of these two had pituitary dysfunction.
When there is such a large amount of steroids in the body, some of them are converted into female sex hormones. In some cases, it causes the growth of the breast tissue, called gynecomastia. This growth is an irreversible side effect of the use of anabolic agents and can muscle builder steroids accumulate from cycle to cycle. Drinking alcohol while taking steroids increases the likelihood of gynecomastia. Typically, the liver quickly deactivates most of the female hormones before they begin to work. Alcohol does not allow the liver to function normally and thus promotes gynecomastia.
How do anabolic steroids affect female sexual characteristics?
Steroids cause specific side effects in women. High doses of anabolics lead to a reduction in breast size, cause hair growth on the face and chest, disrupt the menstrual cycles. Continuous use leads to irreversible coarsening of the voice and an increase in the clitoris. In some cases, there is an increase in sexual activity. There is also hair loss on the head, but it is unclear whether this is due to steroids, since after stopping the use, hair growth resumes. Taking steroids, women can normally perceive such effects due to changes in the mentality caused by steroids.
What is the endocrine system?
The endocrine system is a set of organs that is dedicated to the release of various hormones into the bloodstream. With blood, hormones are carried throughout the body and control various functions of the body. The endocrine system includes, in particular, the testicles, the ovaries, the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the pancreas, the adrenal gland.
Hormones secreted by some endocrine glands control the operation of some other endocrine glands. For example, the pituitary gland secretes FSH and LH hormones. In men, these hormones cause the testicles to produce another hormone, testosterone. The pituitary gland monitors the amount of testosterone released by the testicles. If the testosterone level is too high, the muscle builder steroids pituitary gland secrete less FSH and LH and thus commands the testes to stop producing testosterone. This is a good example of how the body uses the feedback mechanism to control life functions.
How do anabolics work on the endocrine system?
Anabolic steroids mimic natural testosterone, which causes the pituitary gland to stop isolating FSH and LH, resulting in temporary infertility in men and a malfunction in the menstrual cycle in women.
Steroids cause the thyroid, which regulates the overall level of metabolism, to stop the release of the hormone TSH. Despite this, the thyroid gland and its functions remain normal. Experiments with rats prone to diabetes have shown that anabolics accelerate the development of this disease. In humans, steroids cause increased insulin resistance and a change in sensitivity to glucose. This is similar to the symptoms of diabetes, although no cases of this disease associated with the use of anabolics have been recorded.
How does anabolic steroids work?
A normal man produces 20 times more testosterone than a normal woman. This excess level is responsible for a stronger development of the muscles in men, as well as for the development of other sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a lower voice. Testosterone works on this when it is absorbed from the bloodstream by certain cells. Testosterone molecules themselves are located in the right places inside cells called receptors, just as the key enters the corresponding lock. When the receptor is occupied by the desired type of molecule, it instructs the cell to perform specific functions. For example, in muscle cells, testosterone supports the production of protein. Within each cell there is a strictly defined number of receptors. If only a few of them are occupied by the desired molecule, the cell reacts weakly. If all are filled, the cell reacts at the maximum level. A normal man releases enough testosterone into the bloodstream to fill most of the receptors. However, if he takes huge doses of anabolics, as lifters do, cells will not do more than they would from a lower dose, because the receptors are already completely clogged and will not be perceived beyond the required number of testosterone molecules. Excess testosterone will only muscle builder steroids make side effects more likely.
Do steroids really cause body and muscle growth?
There is no evidence that super-high doses of steroids alone will cause muscle growth, only through chemical reactions. In many animals, high doses of anabolic stimulate no more muscle growth than normal doses do. However, there is evidence that steroids improve the gain of muscle mass if the recipient regularly performs physical exercises and observes a high-protein diet.
Anabolic steroids in their work balances between anabolic and catabolic processes in the body. Anabolism is a creative process, in which simpler substances become more complex, bones and muscle tissues. Catabolism is a corresponding destructive process that destroys these complex tissues and removes them from the body. A normally functioning organism tries to balance between these two processes, carrying out constant updating and replacement of tissues. The balance can be estimated from the balance of nitrogen in the body
From the dictionary of Stedman’s Medical Dictionary: [Nitrogen balance is] the difference between the total amount of nitrogen, the organism used and the amount of nitrogen excreted by the body. In an adult, no longer a growing organism, this balance should be about zero or slightly higher.
To the athlete accumulates muscle mass, his body must maintain a positive nitrogen balance, that is, the body should receive more nitrogen than stand out. During strength training, the release of glucocorticosteroids introduces the body into a negative nitrogen balance. After classes, the body is temporarily in a positive balance, during which new protein structures are added to the muscle tissues. Then the nitrogen balance goes to zero.
Without the use of anabolic steroids, muscle mass accumulates very slowly. Anabolic steroids neutralize the catabolic effect, which leads to a positive nitrogen balance and faster muscle growth. However, maintaining a positive nitrogen balance does not last long, 1-2 months, even if you constantly increase the dose of steroids. The body tries to maintain homeostasis and fast addiction (tachyphylaxis) to steroids occurs. An example of a homeostatic mechanism is the elevation of cortisol in the blood with the use of steroids. This can counteract the anabolic effect and muscle builder steroids maintain the catabolic effect. To maintain a positive nitrogen balance, the athlete increases and increases the doses of anabolics, and this increases the risk of side effects.
There is some evidence that anabolic steroids cause the athlete to work in training more and more intensely. This psychological effect may be more important than any direct chemical effect. More frequent and stricter workouts can be the cause of increased cases of damage to connective tissues associated with the use of steroids.
ANABOLIC STEROIDS AND PERSONALITY
Behavior in the abuse of anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids possess both physiological and psychological effects. Abusing steroids is more prone to mood jumps from euphoria to violence and suicidal moods than his peers. These effects most often cease after the abolition of steroids, but it is not known whether any permanent changes in the psyche remain, since no in-depth studies have been carried out in this direction. Some researchers believe that the sensations of euphoria, aggressiveness and reduced fatigue caused by the use of steroids cause the users of steroids to exercise more often and harder than their non-steroid counterparts. It is believed that this is the main reason for the collection of muscle mass from those using steroids. Large doses of steroids can change a person’s self-awareness and cause changes in behavior. Lifters are “chemists” who were subjected to standard psychological tests, showed antisocial inclinations, similar to those that alcoholics exhibit. According to some materials, all subjects, except one, muscle builder steroids experienced “frequent cases of outbursts of irritation, the desire to argue, shout at someone, throw objects, the urgent need to beat, maim, in general cause someone harm …” Personality changes associated with the abuse of anabolic steroids, lead in the end to violence and desire to kill. One of the reports mentions a case in which the lifter-chemist kidnapped and subsequently killed a “voter” at the roadside of a pedestrian. Another steroid-using athlete kidnapped a woman seller from the store and shot her when she tried to escape. In the third case, “Chemist” with his friend tried to fix a homemade explosive device under the car of his former wife’s lover. Fortunately, the bomb exploded, did not hurt anyone. In another case, the “chemist” broke into three houses and set them on fire, the total damage was $ 141,000. In each of these cases there were no preliminary manifestations of violence. The personality of each returned to normal, when the reception of steroids was discontinued.
Is there any evidence that steroids are acting on the mind?
As an experiment, anabolics were used as antidepressants. They cause changes in electroencephalograms, similar to those that cause amphetamine and tricyclic antidepressants. Researchers did not come to a common opinion that testosterone may occupy opioid receptors in the brain. However, with an increase in testosterone levels, it is associated with increased aggression in humans, in tissues and in animals.
Are steroids an addiction?
The term “addiction” is defined (Dr. David Smith, Haight-Ashbury Clinic, San Francisco) as: forced use with loss of control, continuing even despite the negative consequences. If the use of the drug, including steroids, is suitable for this definition, then using this drug has acquired a bad habit. Describes the approximate characteristics of addiction to steroids:
- The hormone is used for a longer period than necessary.
- Attempts to quit use fail.
- The main pastime – the search, use of hormones or recovery after their use.
- The use continues despite the ignorance of the physiological problems associated with hormones.
- Presence of typical withdrawal symptoms.
- The use of hormones to overcome these symptoms.
People who depend on anabolic steroids often start using them at the age of less than 16 years. They go through more cycles in a greater amount of time and use different types of steroids at the same time. They see that their peers are using anabolics and believe that they are weaker than them or have smaller body sizes. On the other hand, there are no reports of steroid dependence caused by the clinical use of steroids. In the physiological studies of eight lifters, all eight experience at least two of the symptoms of dependence on steroids.
What happens after taking steroids?
Athletes abusing steroids often take them in cycles: drugs are taken in very high doses for weeks or months, then the reception stops. Stopping steroids causes a number of physical and psychological effects: “depression, fatigue, decreased libido, insomnia, loss of appetite, self-dissatisfaction and (because of this) a constant need for a regular dose of steroids.”
Some researchers believe that there are two phases of steroid withdrawal, but this concept is not accepted by all. The “Raz” phase occurs within the first week after cancellation and includes influenza-like symptoms (pain in the joints, runny nose, fever). The “Two” phase begins on muscle builder steroids the second week and can last up to several months, the symptoms are depression and the need for steroids. Does this model adequately reflect all the symptoms of cancellation of the course or not, but after the withdrawal of steroids, suicidal depressions do occur. If possible, cancellation must be supervised by medical specialists.